Agriculture Biomass: its potential in Slovakia and Serbia
MetadataShow full item record
The natural resources (oil, coal, natural gas) are insufficient to satisfy the needs of the people for electric and heating energy because sources of fossil fuels are limited. Emission of large quantities of carbon-dioxide into the atmosphere, in the course of combustion processes of solid and liquid fuels have been disrupting the environment. The future lies in the renewable energy sources (RES) surrounding us. The rapid rise of crude oil prices in the early 70-ies of 20th Century focused global attention to the need for efficient use and finding new sources of energy. In addition, energy consumption is growing dramatically in developed countries. EIA expects that demand for energy will grow by 56% between 2010 and 2040 (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2016). In order to overcome the problems caused by the constant rise in the global population, rapid exploitation of many natural resources, increase of pollution and climate change, the World and Europe must radically change their approach to the production, processing, consumption, storage, recycling and disposal of biological wastes. European 2020 strategy indicates bioeconomy as a key element for sustainable and "green" development in the region (European Commission, 2012). Bioeconomy includes sustainable production of renewable biological resources and their conversion into food, biofuels, bioenergy and bioproducts (eg. bioplastics, biopesticides, etc.). It includes agriculture, forestry, fisheries, food and paper production, as well as part of the chemical, biotechnological and energy industries. Agriculture is a major consumer but also can become energy producer. Bearing in mind the amount of biomass produced, and the possibilities for its utilization, the negligible amount of biomass that is currently used as an energy source. An important feature is that biomass combustion is not an increased content of CO2 in the atmosphere, as the ecological point of view is very important. The necessity of integrated approach to the biomass policy is given special importance. Biomass is preferred to other sources of renewable energy, due to the increase in the alternative sources of income it provides to the farmers, and the development of the regional economic structures. It is expected that throughout Europe a new “energy producing” division of agriculture is about to unfold, which, in close cooperation with the energy producing and service providing sections of the national economy, may greatly contribute to the reduction of the energy shortage, while finding new sources of income. Usage of biomass, which is mostly the agricultural waste, would reduce demand of the country for import of fuels, would promote environment protection, and the economy would prosper, which would contribute to the sustainable development of society. At this study the sources of biomass and its potential will be described, as well as energy from agricultural biomass, with special emphasis on the situation and potential of Slovakia and Serbia in biomass. The possibilities of the use of alternative renewable energy sources were considered, such as biodiesel, biogas and bioethanol. Also the opportunities for development and implementation of the second, third and fourth generation biofuels are listed. The study included both positive and negative impacts of the production and use of renewable energy from agricultural biomass (biofuels) compared to the fossil fuels.